Drug Enforcement Administration agents this week raided four medical marijuana shops in California, contrary to President Obama’s campaign promises to stop the raids.
The White House said it expects those kinds of raids to end once Mr. Obama nominates someone to take charge of DEA, which is still run by Bush administration holdovers.
“The president believes that federal resources should not be used to circumvent state laws, and as he continues to appoint senior leadership to fill out the ranks of the federal government, he expects them to review their policies with that in mind,” White House spokesman Nick Shapiro said.
Hemp facts are Courtesy of The Kentucky Hemp Museum & Library, Versailles, KY
1. One acre of hemp produces twice as much oil as one acre of peanuts.
Agriculture, Papermakers have high hopes for Industrial Hemp.
Agri-View. ” Wisconsin’s largest farm newspaper” April 27, 1995.
2. America’s first hemp law was enacted in 1619 at Jamestown Colony, Virginia ordering all farmers to grow Indian hemp seed.
Clark. V.S., History of Manufacture in the United States, Mcgraw Hill. NY 1929. pg 34.
3. Cannabis hemp was legal tender in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800’s. you could even pay your taxes with cannabis hemp.
Clark. V.S., History of Manufacture in the United States. Mcgraw Hill. NY 1929. pg. 34.
4. “The earliest known woven fabric was apparently of hemp which began to be worked in the eighth millennium (8,000-7,000) BC).
“The Columbia History of the World. 1981. pg. 54.
5. The original. Heavy-duty, famous Levi jeans were made for the California ’49ers out of hemp sailcloth and rivets so that the pockets would not rip when filled with gold.
Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy: The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Jack Herer, Revised and expanded 1995 edition: copyright March, 1995, HEMP Publishing. 5632 Van Nuys Blvd., Van Nuys. CA 91401. pg. 6.
6. One acre of hemp produces as much cellulose fiber pulp as 4.1 acres of trees.
Dewey & Merrill. Bulletin #404. U.S. Dept. of Age. 1916.
7. Hemp paper is stronger and has greater folding endurance than wood pulp paper.
Dewey & Merrill. Bulletin #404, US Dept. of Ag., 1916.
8. Cannabis hemp seeds contain all the essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, which are vital to the immune system necessary to maintain a healthy life.
Hempseed Nutrition. Osburn, Lynn, Access unlimited, P.O. Box 1900. Frazier Park. CA 93225.
9. Hemp seeds contain up to 24% protein. A handful of seed provides the minimum daily requirement of protein for adults.
Rosenthal. Ed. Hemp Today, pg. 101.
10. The first recorded hemp crop planted in Kentucky was planted on April 25, 1775 in Boyle County.
State Historic Sight Marker, Boyle County Kentucky.
11. In the 1800’s, Kentucky regularly accounted for one-half of the industrial hemp production in the United States.
Hopkins, James F., 1951. A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky. Lexington: University of Kentucky
12. In 1942, the US Army and Department of Agriculture released their “Hemp for Victory” film which encouraged farmers to grow hemp for the war effort. The war had cut off importation of fibers for textiles and rope, and by 1943, over 100,000 acres of hemp were growing in the US When W.W. II ended, the US Government canceled virtually all hemp farming permits.
Roulac, John, Industrial Hemp Practical Products – Paper to Fabric to Cosmetics, pg. 13. Hemptech.
13. In 1938, Popular Mechanics magazine stated, “Over 25,000 products can be manufactured from hemp, from cellophane to dynamite.”
Roulac, John. Industrial Hemp Practical Products – Paper to Fabric to Cosmetics, pg. 24. Hemptech.
14. August 13, 1941, Henry Ford first displayed his plastic car at Dearborn Days in Michigan. The car ran on fuels derived from hemp and other agricultural based sources, and the fenders were made of hemp, wheat, straw, and synthetic plastics. Ford said his vision was “to grow automobiles from the soil.”
The Kentucky Hemp Museum and Library. 1998 Historical Hemp Calendar, February. Roulac, John. Industrial Hemp Practical Products – Paper to fabric to Cosmetics, pg. 11. Hemptech
Heavy Marijuana Use Doesn’t Damage Brain
Analysis of Studies Finds Little Effect From Long-Term Use
By Sid Kirchheimer
WebMD Health News
July 1, 2003 — Long-term and even daily marijuana use doesn’t appear to cause permanent brain damage, adding to evidence that it can be a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases, say researchers.
The researchers found only a “very small” impairment in memory and learning among long-term marijuana users. Otherwise, scores on thinking tests were similar to those who don’t smoke marijuana, according to a new analysis of 15 previous studies.
In those studies, some 700 regular marijuana users were compared with 484 non-users on various aspects of brain function — including reaction time, language and motor skills, reasoning ability, memory, and the ability to learn new information.
“We were somewhat surprised by our finding, especially since there’s been a controversy for some years on whether long-term cannabis use causes brain damage,” says lead researcher and psychiatrist Igor Grant, MD.
“I suppose we expected to see some differences in people who were heavy users, but in fact the differences were very minimal.”
The marijuana users in those 15 studies — which lasted between three months to more than 13 years — had smoked marijuana several times a week or month or daily. Still, researchers say impairments were less than what is typically found from using alcohol or other drugs.
“All study participants were adults,” says Grant, professor of psychiatry and director of the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research Center at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.
“However, there might be a different set of circumstances to a 12-year-old whose nervous system is still developing.”
10 States OK Marijuana Use
Grant’s analysis, published in the July issue of the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, comes as many states consider laws allowing marijuana to be used to treat certain medical conditions. Earlier this year, Maryland became the 10th state to allow marijuana use to relieve pain and other symptoms of AIDS, multiple sclerosis, cancer, glaucoma, and other conditions — joining Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
Medicinal marijuana is available by prescription in the Netherlands and a new marijuana drug is expected to be released in Great Britain later this year. In the U.S. and elsewhere, Marinol, a drug that is a synthetic form of marijuana and contains its active ingredient, THC, is available by prescription to treat loss of appetite associated with weight loss in AIDS patients.
Grant says he did the analysis to help determine long-term toxicity from long-term and frequent marijuana use. His center is currently conducting 11 studies to determine its safety and efficacy in treating several diseases.
“This finding enables us to see a marginal level of safety, if those studies prove that cannabis can be effective,” Grant tells WebMD. “If we barely find this effect in long-term heavy users, then we are unlikely to see deleterious side effects in individuals who receive cannabis for a short time in a medical setting, which would be safer than what is practiced by street users.”
Grant’s findings come as no surprise to Tod Mikuriya, MD, former director of non-classified marijuana research for the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Narcotics and Drug Abuse Studies and author of The Marijuana Medical Handbook: A Guide to Therapeutic Use. He is currently president of the California Cannabis Medical Group, which has treated some 20,000 patients with medicinal marijuana and Marinol.
‘Highly Effective Medicine’
“I just re-published a paper of the first survey for marijuana toxicity done in 1863 by the British government in India that was the most exhaustive medical study of its time in regards to possible difficulties and toxicity of cannabis. And it reached the same conclusion as Grant,” Mikuriya tells WebMD.
“This is merely confirming what was known over 100 years ago, as well as what was learned by various government findings doing similar research — marijuana is not toxic, but it is a highly effective medicine.”
In fact, marijuana was available as a medicinal treatment in the U.S. until the 1930s.
Lester Grinspoon, MD, a retired Harvard Medical School psychiatrist who studied medicinal marijuana use since the 1960s and wrote two books on the topic, says that while Grant’s finding provides more evidence on its safety, “it’s nothing that those of us who have been studying this haven’t known for a very long time.
“Marijuana is a remarkably safe and non-toxic drug that can effectively treat about 30 different conditions,” he tells WebMD. “I predict it will become the aspirin of the 21st century, as more people recognize this.”
Filed under: Marijuana | Tagged: AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Igor Grant, Marijuana, Marinol, MD, medicinal marijuana, National Institute of Mental Health Center for Narcotics and Drug Abuse Studies, thc, The Marijuana Medical Handbook: A Guide to Therapeutic Use, WebMD Health News, weight loss | Leave a comment »
Listed below are the top 10 most believed myths as compiled by http://www.MedicalCannabis.com:
1. There are hundreds of compounds/chemicals in marijuana-There are approximately 400, compared to a tomato that has roughly 330.
2. It is stronger today which makes it more dangerous- The marijuana has not become stronger.
3. As a plant the dosage cannot be controlled- Prior to the marijuana prohibition when pharmaceutical companies created extracts and tinctures of cannabis, they were able to provide fairly uniform preparations.
4. Smoking marijuana is what makes it dangerous- Higher potency of marijuana will also allow patients to smoke less to achieve a therapeutic dose without the risk of overdose.
5. Marijuana Destroys the immune system- There is no conclusive evidence that demonstrates harm to the immune system when used in therapeutic doses for humans.
6. It is highly addictive- Compared to other commonly used psychoactive drugs, marijuana is not highly addictive and has a low abuse potential.
7. Marijuana is a gateway drug-The 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine finds that, “There is no evidence that marijuana serves as a stepping stone on the basis of its particular drug effect.”
8. Use during pregnancy can cause damage to the fetus- Studies by Melanie Dreher, PhD, RN conducted in Jamaica and Dr. Peter Fried in Canada show minimal effects on the fetus during pregnancy.
9. A marijuana pill is available and completely legal- MarinolÒ is a synthetic form of THC, the pure psychoactive chemical in marijuana.
10. Medical use send the message to teens that it is not dangerous and encourages usage- Reports from teens have indicated that it is easier for them to obtain illegal marijuana than it is to obtain regulated alcohol or prescription drug.
Credit San Francisco Bay Chronicle…….
In the summer of 1984, 10th-grader Irwin Nanofsky and a friend were driving down the Apalachee Parkway on the way home from baseball practice when they were pulled over by a police officer for a minor traffic infraction.
After Nanofsky produced his driver’s license the police officer asked permission to search the vehicle. In less than two minutes, the officer found a homemade pipe underneath the passenger’s seat of the Ford Aerostar belonging to the teenage driver’s parents. The minivan was seized, and the two youths were taken into custody on suspicion of drug possession.
Illegal possession of drug paraphernalia ranks second only to open container violations on the crime blotter of this Florida college town. And yet the routine arrest of 16 year-old Nanofsky and the seizure of his family’s minivan would inspire one of the most controversial drug-related scientific discoveries of the century.
Meet Hugo Nanofsky, biochemist, Florida State University tenured professor, and the parental authority who posted bail for Irwin Nanofsky the night of July 8, 1984. The elder Nanofsky wasn’t pleased that his son had been arrested for possession of drug paraphernalia, and he became livid when Tallahassee police informed him that the Aerostar minivan would be permanently remanded to police custody.
Over the course of the next three weeks, Nanofsky penned dozens of irate letters to the local police chief, the Tallahassee City Council, the State District Attorney and, finally, even to area newspapers. But it was all to no avail.
Under advisement of the family lawyer, Irwin Nanofsky pled guilty to possession of drug paraphernalia in order to receive a suspended sentence and have his juvenile court record sealed. But in doing so, the family minivan became “an accessory to the crime”. According to Florida State law, it also became the property of the Tallahassee Police Department Drug Task Force. In time, the adult Nanofsky would learn that there was nothing he could do legally to wrest the vehicle from the hands of the state.
Biochem 101: How to design a Cannabis-equivalent citrus plant
- Step One:Biochemically isolate all the required enzymes for the production of THC.
- Step Two:Perform N-terminal sequencing on isolated enzymes, design degenerate PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers and amplify the genes.
- Step Three:Clone genes into an agrobacterial vector by introducing the desired piece of DNA into a plasmid containing a transfer or T-DNA. The mixture is transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a gram negative bacterium.
- Step Four:Use the Agrobacterium tumefaciens to infect citrus plants after wounding. The transfer DNA will proceed to host cells by a mechanism similar to conjugation. The DNA is randomly integrated into the host genome and will be inherited.
It was in the fall of 1984 that John Chapman Professor of Biochemistry at Florida State University, now driving to work behind the wheel of a used Pontiac Bonneville, first set on a pet project that he hoped would “dissolve irrational legislation with a solid dose of reason.” Nanofsky knew he would never get his family’s car back, but he had plans to make sure that no one else would be pulled through the gears of what he considers a Kafka-esque drug enforcement bureaucracy.
“It’s quite simple, really,” Nanofsky explains, “I wanted to combine Citrus synthesis with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.” In layman’s terms, the respected college professor proposed to grow oranges that would contain THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Fourteen years later, that project is complete, and Nanofsky has succeeded where his letter writing campaign of yore failed: he has the undivided attention of the nation’s top drug enforcement agencies, political figures, and media outlets.
The turning point in the Nanofsky saga came when the straight-laced professor posted a message to Internet newsgroups announcing that he was offering “cannabis-equivalent orange tree seeds” at no cost via the U.S. mail. Several weeks later, U.S. Justice Department officials showed up at the mailing address used in the Internet announcement: a tiny office on the second floor of the Dittmer Laboratory of Chemistry building on the FSU campus. There they would wait for another 40 minutes before Prof. Nanofsky finished delivering a lecture to graduate students on his recent research into the “cis-trans photoisomerization of olefins.”
“I knew it was only a matter of time before someone sent me more than just a self-addressed stamped envelope,” Nanofsky quips, “but I was surprised to see Janet Reno’s special assistant at my door”. After a series of closed door discussions, Nanofsky agreed to cease distribution of the THC-orange seeds until the legal status of the possibly narcotic plant species is established.
Much to the chagrin of authorities, the effort to regulate Nanofsky’s invention may be too little too late. Several hundred packets containing 40 to 50 seeds each have already been sent to those who’ve requested them, and Nanofsky is not obliged to produce his mailing records. Under current law, no crime has been committed and it is unlikely that charges will be brought against the fruit’s inventor.
Now it is federal authorities who must confront the nation’s unwieldy body of inconsistent drug laws. According to a source at the Drug Enforcement Agency, it may be months if not years before all the issues involved are sorted out, leaving a gaping hole in U.S. drug policy in the meantime. At the heart of the confusion is the fact that THC now naturally occurs in a new species of citrus fruit.
As policy analysts and hemp advocates alike have been quick to point out, the apparent legality (for now) of Nanofsky’s “pot orange” may render debates over the legalization of marijuana moot. In fact, Florida’s top law enforcement officials admit that even if the cultivation of Nanofsky’s orange were to be outlawed, it would be exceedingly difficult to identify the presence of outlawed fruit among the state’s largest agricultural crop.
Filed under: Interesting Webfinds, Marijuana, Strange Stories, The Drug War | Tagged: agrobacterial, Apalachee, biochemist, citrus, Clone, cloning, DEA, drug enforcement, drug paraphernalia, enzymes, Florida, Florida State University, fruit, genetic engineering, genetics, Irwin Nanofsky, law, Marijuana, orange, possession, seeds, Tallahassee, thc | 3 Comments »
Following article was posted on Scientific American’s website “60 Second Science”, full credit goes to them.
A large-scale study released this week showed that the herb gingko biloba has no effect in preventing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. But alternative medicine aficionados may find hope in a new research touting the bennies of another “herb” in preserving memory.
Scientists from Ohio State University report that marijuana, contrary to the conventional wisdom, may help ward off Alzheimer’s and keep recall sharp. Their findings, released today at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington D.C.: chemical components of marijuana reduce inflammation and stimulate the production of new brain cells, thereby enhancing memory.
The team suggested that a drug could be formulated that would resemble tetrahydroannibol, or THC, the psychoactive ingredient in pot sans making the user high. But the research may ultimately drive those who fear impending dementia to roll their own solution to the problem.
Study co-author Gary Wenk, a professor of psychology, had already devised a preliminary version of a THC-like synthetic drug that improves memory in lab animals. His team at the meeting said that it works by activating at least three receptors in the brain targeted by THC—proteins on the surface of nerve cells that then trigger cellular processes resulting in reduced inflammation and production of new brain cells that can boost recall. Understanding how the compounds work may pave the way for a pharmaceutical company to prepare its own med for human clinical trials.
The researchers ducked the obvious question of whether it might be simpler, faster and cheaper to simply light up a joint. “Could people smoke marijuana to prevent Alzheimer’s disease if the disease is in their family?” Wenk said in a statement. “We’re not saying that, but it might actually work.”